The Computer Sciences Department
The Computer Sciences Department (CSD) was organized in 1971 on the basis of the Laboratory of Computer Science (Head Dr. Kuzjakin J.I.), included in structure of Department of Computer Systems (Head Dr. Chistov V.P.). In 1973, CSD was reorganized to Computing Center (CC) (Head Dr. Kuzjakin J.I.). In 1982, CC was reformed again to CSD (Head Dr. Kuzjakin J.I.). In connection with forming of big multicomputer complexes (complexes on the basis of computer BESM-6, Elbrus 1-K2, complex on the basis of ES-1045, ES-1066) in 1986, CSD was divided to two departments: the Department Multicomputer Complexes (Head Dr. Kuzjakin J.I.) and the Department Information-Computing Systems (Head Dr. Khokhlov I.A.), in which structure the Laboratory of Operating Systems (Dr. Khokhlov I.A.) was included. In 1991 on their basis, two departments were formed: the Computer Sciences Department (Head Dr. Goldstein M.L.) and the Department of Computing Networks (Head Dr. Kuzjakin J.I.). This structure is remain at present.
The Computing Center of the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics (independently of name of structured subdivision) practically from time of its organization is working in feature of collective using. Now, all scientific subdivisions of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, the institutes and organizations of Ural Region make use of the CC services.
The development of CC IMM always was implemented on the way of installation of modern techniques, most new and advanced toolsets and technologies. During almost 40-years history, the CC of IMM exploited such computers as: Ural, M-20, BESM-2, M-220, BESM-6, Elbrus 1-K2, Elbrus 1-KB, ES-1060, ES-1045, ES-1066, all spectrum of computers of series SM and many others. Continuously, the works were executed for modernization of both central and peripheral equipment, and, from 1979, considerable part of works of the Computer Sciences Department was devoted to the Program "Creation of Regional Academnetwork".
Any words about history of development of the CC. In March 1961, the first computer "Ural" was put into operation. On the 1 April 1961, the official opening of the Sverdlovsk Branch of Institute of Mathematics named V.A.Steklov took place. This date became the official point of activity beginning of the CC.
Further development of the CC went on the way of improvement of computing toolsets by asquisition new, more powerful and comfortable computers. In 1963, the computers M-20 and BESM-2 were put into operation. Over one year, yet one computer M-20 began to work. In parallel with installation of these computers, other works were done by collaborators of CC for development of systems that provide ability to work with both graphical and terminal subsystems, with external storage devices and so on.
The work with graphics went on the way of continuous development of both hardware and software. In 1967, the Institute began to collaborate with company "Benson". During more that 20 years the Institute was provided with effective and highreliable graphical equipment. The design works in area of different interfaces for connection with plotters of company "Benson" were continued by collaborators of the CC practically up to 1990.
In 1970, the computer M-220M was introduced, and already the next year, modernization of operating memory was completed, and improvement of information output by the connection with the printer MP-15 was executed. In 1971, the first computer BESM-6 was put into operation. In 1974, the computing complex ASVT M-6000 was installed that by special channel was connected with BESM-6. In 1975, the computer Nairi-3 was introduced. In 1975, the first serious improvements of computer BESM-6 were done, namely: the memory MOZY-64 K was introduced, the devices of magnetic disk ES-5050 - 4 pieces and CDS - 111 (USA) - 6 pieces were installed, modifications of switch circuits of magnetic disk devices were completed, highspeed devices with input punched cards (1200 cards per minute) was installed, new operating system DIAPAK were introduced. In 1977, the second computer BESM-6 was installed. In 1978, the switching hardware which allowed to design the terminal network with 64 workstations was put into operation, and, in 1988, this hardware was replaced by more advanced one with access of users to all computers, and number of terminals was added up to 128 pieces, the complex consists of two computers with connection type "POST-BOX" was formed on the basis of computers BESM-6.
Later, the Institute came to a decision to conduct technical equipment of the CC on the way of computers BESM-Elbrus and ES types. As the result, in 1982, the first computer ES-1060 put into operation in the Institute.
In 1987, the way of BESM-6 was continued by the multiprocessor complex Elbrus 1-K2, and the ES-1060 was moved to the territory of the Institute of Mining Industry; there was installed two-computer complex ES-1045-2M. In parallel with installation of new computers and systems, the works was continued to improve the existing computers BESM-6. The magnetic memory was replaced in 1988 by semiconductor memory, the switch of highspeed disks type MOM was installed. There was continued the improvement of computers ES-1060. The devices of magnetic disks (4 pieces) with 200 Mbytes of company BASF were integrated into this structure. The way of Elbrus in 1990 was continued by the complex Elbrus 1-KB, and, in structure of two-computers complex ES-1045-2M, one of its was replaced by ES-1066. All computers of the way BESM-Elbrus was accessed by switching connection to all users of the Institute and of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.
In parallel with the computers of general purpose, the network subjects was developed on the basis of information-computing complexes. The first complex was installed in the Institute in 1980. This was IVK-7 on the basis of minicomputer type SM-3. Further on this subjects, the IVK-2 on the basis of SM-4 was introduced in 1981. In 1982, another one IVK-2, and, after that, two IVK on the basis of SM-1420 and SM-1700 were put. On the basis of these IVK the center of messages switching were put, including the interfaces and channels of connection with computers type BESM-Elbrus; all those were developed in frames of the Academnetwork Program. In 1993, the Institute became to the decision to develop computing systems with mass parallelizm. In 1994, such system consisting of 6 computing nodes was installed and put into operation. In order to provide of miltiusers feature, the local information-computing network of the Ethernet type was realized in the Institute in 1994. From 1994, the transfer was begun to new computer science, destined for computing and for communication toolsets. From 1995, the following works were carried out: increasing of multiprocessing system performance, extension of its abilities, development of local network, inclusion of the Institute local network both in regional and in global network, introduction of communication toolsets to provide the remote access of users of Ural Branch and Ural Region to computing powers of the Institute.
Sector of local networks was organized in 1995 on the basis of the Laboratory of small computers, earlier introduced in 1994 into the structure of the Computer Sciences Department. The Laboratory was formed in 1986. The general works of the Laboratory in 1986-1990 were connected with construction of regional part of network of Academy of Sciences - the Academnetwork, which the first line was completed in 1990. During period from 1991 to 1993, the team of small computers Laboratory was acquiring an experience of development and using local network founded on the ideology of open systems. In particular, the local network was designed which consists of personal computers and minicomputers and operates under OS Unix BSD 4.3 with protocol stack TCP/IP. As a base to development of information applications, the release SUBD UNIFY was used. These toolsets were used to develop an approach and realization of information systems distributed in local network of both personal computers and minicomputers.
The work of the Laboratory was effectively realized in 1994-1996 at design, development and further improvement of the local information-computing system as a toolset of collective access to MVS-100.
The are also three non-structured groups in the Department.
From 1994, the strategy of systems mass parallelizm - MVS (multiprocessor computing system) was chosen as the priority direction of improvement of computer machinary in the Institute. In frames of this direction, the following works were completed and are continued now:
At present, the computing equipment of the Institute consists of:
The creation of Supercomputing Center (SCC) in the Ural Region and its combination with the supercomputing centers of Moscow, Siberia and Far East are theprincipal problems of the Department within next few years.